Oral application of SILL questionnaire using the bar for frequency and evaluation of strategy use by Muslim pupils in Thrace

Penelope Kambakis-Vougiouklis, Persephone Mamoukari, Eleni Agathopoulou, Thomaï Alexiou


Twelve Turkish-Greek bilingual learners of English were orally administered a translated version of the SILL questionnaire (Oxford 1990) and had to specify frequency of language learning strategy (LLS) use as well as confidence in the effectiveness of each strategy on a [01] bar instead of the usual Likert scales. Deviations between frequency and confidence in the results indicate that learners either appreciate the effectiveness of a strategy but they do not know how to use it or that they use a strategy without firmly believing in its usefulness, which suggests the need for pedagogical interventions to raise the learners’ awareness of language learning strategies and how to use them. More proficient learners exhibit higher frequency and confidence in reported LLS use than their less proficient peers, while the age of the learners does not seem to affect LLS use.


strategies, qualitative, bar, Likert scales, frequency, confidence, proficiency

Full Text:



Bremner, S. 1997. Language learning strategies and language proficiency: Causes or outcomes? Perspectives 9. Retrieved 18 April 2012 from: http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/10/1000125.pdf

Bull, S. & Y. Ma. 2001. Raising learner awareness of language learning strategies in situations of limited resources. Interactive Learning Environments 9: 171-200.

Chamot, A.U. 2005. Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 25: 112-130.

Chamot, A.U. 2007. Accelerating academic achievement of English language learners: A synthesis of five evaluations of the CALLA Model. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (eds), The International Handbook of English Language Learning, Part I. Norwell, MA: Springer Publications, 317-331.

Cohen, A.D. 1998. Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. London: Longman.

Cohen, A.D. 2003. The learner’s side of foreign language learning: Where do styles, strategies, and tasks meet? International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 41(4): 279-291.

Cohen, A.D. & E. Macaro. 2007. Language learner strategies: 30 years of research and practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Demirel, M. 2009. The validity and reliability study of Turkish version of strategy inventory for language learners. World Applied Sciences Journal 7(6): 708-713.

Dörnyei, Z. 2003. Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehrman, M.E. & R. Oxford. 1995. Cognition plus: Correlates of adult language proficiency. The Modern Language Journal 79 (1): 67-89.

Gavriilidou, Z. & L. Mitits. 2013. Adaptation of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for students aged 12-15 into Greek: A pilot study. Paper presented at the 21st International Symposium of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Gavriilidou, Z. & A. Papanis. 2010. The effect of strategy instruction on strategy use by Muslim pupils learning English as a second language. Journal of Applied Linguistics 25: 47-63.

Graham, S. & E. Macaro. 2008. Strategy instruction in listening for lower and intermediate learners of French. Language Learning 58(4): 747-783.

Green, J.M. & R. Oxford. 1995. A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly 29(2): 261-297.

Gu, P.Y. 2002. Gender, academic major, and vocabulary learning strategies of Chinese EFL learners. RELC Journal 33(1): 35-54.

Intze, P. 2010. Accuracy and confidence in Modern Greek vocabulary of native and non native speakers in Western Thrace (in Greek). Unpublished PhD thesis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.

Intze, P. & P. Kambaki-Vougioukli. 2009. Lexical guessing: Accuracy and confidence of pupils of Greek as a first or second language. Journal of Applied Linguistics 25: 65-83.

Καμπάκη-Βουγιουκλή, Π. 2001. Γλωσσική αποκατάσταση παιδιών επαναπατριζομένων από την πρώην ΕΣΣΔ: Μια ψυχογλωσσική προσέγγιση. PHASIS, ICPBMGS, 4: 71-81, LOGOS, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. 1990. Lexical decomposition as a strategy for guessing unknown words: Users' competence and confidence. Eric Document Reproduction Service No.ED., 328 096.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. 1992a. Greek and English readers' accuracy and confidence when inferencing meanings of unknown words. Proceedings, 6th International Symposium on The Description and/or comparison of English and Greek. Komotini: Democtitus University of Thrace, 89-112.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. 1992b. Accuracy and confidence of Greek learners guessing English word meaning. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Wales.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. 2012. SILL revisited: Confidence in strategy effectiveness and use of the bar in data collecting and processing. In Z. Gavriilidou, A. Efthymiou, E. Thomadaki & P. Kambaki-Vougioukli (eds), Selected papers of the 10th ICGL, Komotini, Greece, Democtitus University of Thrace, 342-353.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. 2013. Bar in SILL questionnaire for multiple results processing: Users’ frequency and confidence. Sino-US English Teaching 10(3): 184-199.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P., A. Karakos, N. Lygeros & T. Vougiouklis. 2011. Fuzzy instead of discrete. Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics (AFMI) 2(1): 81-89.

Kambaki-Vougioukli, P. & T. Vougiouklis. 2008. Bar instead of a scale. Ratio Sociologica 3: 49-56.

MacIntyre, P.D. 1994. Toward a social psychological model of strategy use. Foreign Language Annals 27: 185-195.

Magogwe, J.M. & R. Oliver. 2007. The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System 35: 338-352.

Μανώλη, Π. 2011. Συμβολή των στρατηγικών στην εκμάθηση γλωσσών. Παρουσίαση στην ηλεκτρονική πλατφόρμα Ταξίδι στο γραμματισμό, http://www.literacy.gr/strathgikes. Ανακτήθηκε στις 23/6/2014από το https://www.academia.edu/6247442/_

Mathioudakis, Ν. & P. Kambaki-Vougioukli. 2010. The adjectival identity of Ulysses in Kazantzakis’ ΟDYSSEY through the fuzzy sets. Retrieved 18 July 2014 from:


McDonough, S.H. 1999. Learner strategies. Language Teaching 32(1): 1-18.

Mochizuki, A. 1999. Language learning strategies used by Japanese university students. RELC 30(2): 101-113.

Nisbet, D.L., E.R. Tindall & A.A. Arroyo. 2005. Language learning strategies and English proficiency of Chinese University students. Foreign Language Annals 38(1): 100-107.

O’Malley, J.M. & A.U. Chamot. 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R.L. 1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newburry House.

Oxford, R.L. 1996. Employing a questionnaire to assess the use of language learning strategies. Applied Language Learning 7: 25-45.

Oxford, R.L. & M. Nyikos. 1989. Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. The Modern Language Journal 73 (3): 291-300.

Παπάνης, Α. 2008. Στρατηγικές εκμάθησης των Μουσουλμανοπαίδων της Θράκης που μαθαίνουν την αγγλική ως ξένη γλώσσα. Διδακτορική Διατριβή, Τμήμα Επιστημών της Εκπαίδευσης στην Προσχολική Ηλικία, Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο.

Phillips, V. 1991. A look at learner strategy use and ESL proficiency. CATESOL Journal 4: 57-67.

Psaltou-Joycey, A. 2003. Strategy use by Greek university students of English. In E. Mela-Athanasopoulou (ed.), Selected Papers of the 13th International Symposium of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 591-601.

Psaltou-Joycey, A. 2008. Cross-cultural differences in the use of learning strategies by students of Greek as a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29(3): 310-324.

Psaltou-Joycey, A. & A.-M. Sougari. 2010. Greek young learners’ perceptions about foreign language learning and teaching. In A. Psaltou-Joycey & M. Mattheoudakis (eds), Advances in Research on Language Learning and Teaching: Selected Papers. Thessaloniki: The Greek Applied Linguistics Association, 387-401.

Roszkowski, M.J. & M. Soven. 2010. Shifting gears: Consequences of including two negatively worded items in the middle of a positively worded questionnaire. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 35(1): 113-130.

Σαραφιανού, Ά. 2013. Στρατηγικές εκμάθησης της ξένης γλώσσας: Η άμεση και ενσωματωμένη διδασκαλία τους στα πλαίσια εφαρμογής ενός παρεμβατικού προγράμματος καλλιέργειας στρατηγικής εκμάθησης των Αγγλικών σε μαθητές Λυκείου. Αδημοσίευτη διδακτορικη διατριβή, Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο.

Schmidt, R. & Y. Watanabe. 2001. Motivation, strategy use, and pedagogical preferences in foreign language learning. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (eds), Motivation and second language acquisition. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 313-359.

Tragant, E. & M. Victori. 2006. Reported strategy use and age. In C. Munõz (ed.), Age and foreign language learning rate. The BAF project. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 208-236.

Tragant, E. & M. Victori. 2012. Language learning strategies, course grades, and age in EFL secondary school learners. Language Awareness 2: 293-308.

Vougiouklis, T. & P. Kambaki-Vougioukli. 2011. On the use of the bar. China-USA Business Review 10(6): 484-489.

Vrettou, A. 2011. Patterns of language learning strategy use by Greek-speaking young learners of English. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Wharton, G. 2000. Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning 50(2): 203-244.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Penelope Kambakis-Vougiouklis, Persephone Mamoukari, Eleni Agathopoulou, Thomaï Alexiou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, unless otherwise stated.