Adaptation of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) for students aged 12-15 into Greek: Developing an adaptation protocol

Zoe Gavriilidou, Lydia Mitits


The purpose of the study was to develop an adaptation protocol for Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language learning (SILL) from English into Greek to be administered to monolingual/multilingual students aged 12-15 in secondary schools in Thrace, Greece. This study focuses on following the appropriate adaptation protocol in order to maximize the questionnaire reliability and validity, both when used with the particular learners and when used to compare scores across cultures and languages. The original scale was translated into Greek, back-translated and reviewed. Cross-cultural adaptation included the experts’ revision, followed by the instrument administration to 50 participants. Its internal consistency was .91. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair to good for the total scale and its six-subscales.


questionnaire adaptation, SILL, language learning strategies, reliability, validity

Full Text:



Beaton, D.E., C. Bomardier, F. Guillemeni & M. Bosi Ferraz. 2000. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine 25(24): 3186-3191.

Chamot, A.U. 2001. The role of learning strategies in second language acquisition. In M.P. Breen (ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New Directions in Research. Harlow: Longman.

Council of Europe. 2001. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Demirel, M. 2009. The validity and reliability study of Turkish version of strategy inventory for language learners. World Applied Science Journal 7(6): 708-714.

Gavriilidou, Z. & Α. Papanis. 2007. A preliminary study of learning strategies in foreign language instruction: Students beliefs about strategy use. Proceedings of the 2007 GALA Conference. Thessaloniki.

Gavriilidou, Z. & A. Papanis. 2010. The effect of strategy instruction on strategy use by Muslim pupils learning English as a second language. Journal of Applied Linguistics 25: 47-63.

Gavriilidou, Z. & A. Psaltou-Joycey. 2010. Language learning strategies: An overview. Journal of Applied Linguistics 25: 11-25.

Hambleton, R.K. & L. Patsula. 1998. Adapting tests for use in multiple languages and cultures 1. Social Indicators Research 45: 153-171.

International Test Commission. 2010. International test commission guidelines for translating and adapting tests. Retrieved from

Kazamia, V. 2003. Language learning strategies of Greek adult learners of English: Volumes I and II. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Departments of Linguistics and Phonetics, School of Education. The Language Centre. The University of Leeds.

LoCastro, V. 1994. Learning strategies and learning environments. TESOL Quarterly 28: 409-414.

LoCastro, V. 1995. The author responds. TESOL Quarterly 29: 172-174.

Macaro, E. 2006. Strategies for language learning and for language use: Revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal 90, iii.

Oh, J. 1992. Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea. Language Teaching 1: 3-53.

Oxford, R.L. 1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House/Harper & Row. Now Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R.L. 1996. Employing a questionnaire to assess the use of language learning strategies. Applied Language Learning 7(1 & 2): 25-45.

Oxford, R.L. & M.E. Ehrman 1995. Adults’ language learning strategies in an intensive foreign language program in the United States. System 23(3): 359-386.

Psaltou-Joycey, A. 2010. Language learning strategies in the foreign language classroom. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.

Rahman, A., Z. Iqbal, W. Waheed & N. Hussain. 2003. Translation and cultural adaptation of health questionnaires. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. Retrieved March 8 2012 from

Turner, S.M., S.T. DeMers, H. Roberts Fox & G. Reed. 2001. APA’s guidelines for test user qualifications: An executive summary. American Psychologist 56(12): 1099-1113.

van de Vijver, F. & K. Leung. 1997a. Methods and data analysis of comparative research. In J.W. Berry, Y.H. Poortinga & J. Pandey (eds), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (2nd ed., 1: 257-300). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

van de Vijver, F. & K. Leung. 1997b. Methods and data analysis for crosscultural research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

van de Vijver F. & N.K. Tanzer. 1997. Bias and equivalence in cross-cultural assessment. An overview European Review of Applied Psychology 47(4): 263-280.

Vrettou, A. 2011. Patterns of language learning strategy use by Greek-speaking young learners of English. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics. School of English. Faculty of Philosophy.

Watanabe, Y. 1990. External variables affecting language learning strategies of Japanese EFL learners: Effects of entrance examination, years spent at college/university, and staying overseas. Unpublished master’s thesis. Lancaster University. Lancaster, U.K.

Yang, N.-D. 1992. Data on students in an intensive EFL program in Taipei. Unpublished manuscript. National Taiwan University.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Zoe Gavriilidou, Lydia Mitits

e-ISSN: 2529-1114

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, unless otherwise stated.