Design of a laboratory bioreactor for engineering articular cartilage based on 3D printed nasal septum-like scaffolds

Konstantinos Theodoridis, Vasiliki-Ilya Gargareta, Georgia Katsioudi, Maria Chnaraki, Eleni Aggelidou, Theofanis Vavilis, Petros Koidis, Maria-Eleni Manthou, Maria Chatzinikolaidou, Athina Bakopoulou, Aristeidis Kritis

Abstract


Cartilage degeneration is a severe disease affecting a significant part of the population at all ages. Various treatment modalities are currently used for small-sized cartilage defects, such as abrasion arthroplasty and subchondral drilling, but fail to repair larger-scale damages. Regenerative Medicine pushes Tissue Engineering (TE) to the forefront of modern engineering techniques combining novel biocompatible materials, new tissue engineering methods, like 3D printing technology and bioprocesses trying to create quality transplants for large cartilage defects. The appropriate cell environment for engineered tissues can be achieved through growth of the tissue-engineered constructs into bioreactors. Each bioreactor uses different principles for culturing processes, and some of them mostly mixed and perfusion bioreactors, use different kind of mechanical forces on the scaffold to achieve high cell densities, enhanced mechanical properties leading to better quality of engineered cartilage. These advantageous particularities can be used to create a laboratory bioreactor design, for culturing 3D printed nasal septum cartilage as a working example of hyaline cartilage.


Keywords


Cartilage tissue engineering, bioreactors, bioprocesses, mechanical stimuli, 3D printing

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